We work with the very best researchers and universities around the World to gain valuable knowledge about, how CBD products work in humans and animals and to get detailed information about, how the cannabinoids react with the CB1 and CB2 receptors.
We work with University of Bologna and Professor Roberto Chiocchetti DVM, PhD. and his team from Department of Veterinary Medical Science and are funding a number of research studies on CBD and animals.
Disclaimer: we supported the University of Bologna with financial funds for research. The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Research study: Localization of cannabinoid and cannabinoid related receptors in the cat gastrointestinal tract
An increasing amount of literature indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors may exert beneficial effects on gastroin-testinal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity.
The present study aimed to immunohistochemically investigate the distribution of the canonical cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and other key receptors in tissue samples of the gastrointestinal tract of the cat.
Abstract: Cannabinoid receptors showed a wide distribution in the feline gastrointestinal tract layers. Although not yet confirmed/supported by functional evidences, the present research might represent an anatomical substrate potentially useful to support, in feline species, the therapeutic use of cannabinoids during gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases.
Cannabinoid receptors regulate gastrointestinal tract (GIT) motility and secretion, sensation, emesis, satiety, and inflammation. Several evidences indicate that substances acting on GIT cannabinoid receptors may be beneficial for gut discomfort and pain.
The primary and most studied cannabinoid receptors are two G protein-coupled receptors: cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R). CB1R is mostly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, while CB2R is mainly expressed in immune cells.
Several studies suggest that CB1R or CB2R might have a protective role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and support the possible value of targeting these pathways with pharmacological agents, such as phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoid agonists, for therapeutic gain.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is currently one of the most studied cannabinoids and its use is spreading throughout human and veterinary medical practice. Notably, CBD also is a non-psychoactive compound with proved anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety and anti-tumoral properties.
CBD seems to act preferentially on cannabinoid-related receptors, such as GPR3 (inverse agonist), GPR6 (inverse agonist), GPR12 (inverse agonist), GPR55 (antagonist), TRPA1 (agonist), TRPV1 (agonist), and serotoninergic receptors 5-HT1a (agonist), 5-HT2a (partial agonist), and 5-HT3 (antagonist)