what is hemp, marijuana and cannabis

What is hemp, marijuana and cannabis? The complete guide to understanding cannabis

Hemp, marijuana and cannabis may all mean the same thing for you, but we assure you that they are in fact very different from one another.

Hemp and marijuana are products of the cannabis plant, which have contrasting functions and effects on the human organism. The hemp products are known to alleviate pain, help with soothing of both external and internal aches and conditions, while marijuana products are high in THC and therefore have a powerful psychotic effect on the mind.

In the following lines, you can learn more about the benefits and also the possible side effects of both cannabis plant species.  

1. What is hemp?

Hemp has been part of our culture for more than 10.000 years. Hemp is one of the oldest domesticated crops known to man and is believed to have originated in South or Central Asia. It is one of the strongest, most durable, naturally soft fibers on the planet. Its applications include paper, fuel, oils, medicine, clothing, housing, plastic, rope, and even food for thousands of years. In fact, the Columbia History of the World states that the oldest relic of human industry is a scrap of hemp fabric dating back to approximately 8,000 BC.

Another interesting fact is that hemp was used as legal tender (money), as people were able to pay their taxes with hemp for over 200 years in America.

Hemp is not marijuana. Marijuana is not hemp

hemp and marijuana are different

Marijuana and hemp are two different forms of cannabis. They each have their own applications and benefits.

One of the first differences between hemp and marijuana is the fact that marijuana is usually used for medical conditions and recreation. Many use it for its psychoactive (“high”) or non-psychoactive effects and benefits, which depend on the cannabinoid content.

Hemp, on the other hand, naturally contains a high amount of cannabidiol (CBD) and only a trace amount of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Fortunately, the cannabinoid strains in hemp are the ideal way to benefit from cannabis without the psychoactive effect (“high”).

Hemp is used for making herbal supplements, food, fiber, rope, paper, bricks, oil, natural plastic, and has had many other industrial and environmental applications and benefits throughout history.

Within the past decade, researchers have become increasingly interested in the medical benefits of another compound found in both plants, known as cannabidiol (CBD). CBD is a non-psychoactive component of the cannabis plant but is reputed to help with a myriad of medical conditions.

It's important to know that although THC and CBD are the most studied components of cannabis, there are more chemical compounds found within the plant, such as (CBG), (CBC), cannabidivarin (CBDV), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), terpenes, and flavonoids. While there is still much to learn about these other chemicals, researchers have discovered that whole plant cannabis extracts that contain these other chemicals are more beneficial than isolated extracts that contain just CBD or THC.

It’s all cannabis

Scientifically, industrial hemp and marijuana are the same plants, with a genus and species name of Cannabis sativa. They have an entirely different genetic profile though.

Hemp and marijuana typically get mixed up, because they both are from the same plant species, Cannabis sativa L. Although both hemp and marijuana have male and female features, hemp has more female than male ones, as opposed to marijuana.

In the marijuana plant, the female strains produce the buds and flowers for users to consume in order to gain psychoactive or non-psychoactive effects. With hemp on the other hand, the female plants bare the seeds and have strong fibers. Thus, hemp is used mostly for industrial and commercial purposes.

Industrial Hemp is a strain of Cannabis sativa, while marijuana could be a product of Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, or Cannabis ruderalis. The major difference is how industrial hemp has been bred compared to a marijuana form of Cannabis sativa. Generally, industrial hemp is very fibrous, with long strong stalks, and has barely any flower buds, while a marijuana strain of Cannabis sativa will be smaller, bushier, and full of flower buds. However, new industrial hemp varieties are being bred in Switzerland. They are expected to have more flowers and higher yields of cannabinoids and terpenes. To put it in perspective, marijuana can have anywhere from 5% to over 20% of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, while hemp only has 0.3% to 1.5% of THC.

2. What is hemp seed oil?

what is hemp seed oil

Hemp seed oil is nutty in aroma oil that is a product of the raw seeds of the hemp plant. It is a documented dietary supplement and beauty aid and has been used worldwide for hundreds of years. In 6000 BC, both the seeds and oil were used for food in China. At the turn of the 20th century in the USA, it was commonly used in lamps, drying oils for paints, wood varnish and other domestic purposes.

Hemp seed oil is not the same as hemp oil, though. The latter comes from the tall growing varieties of cannabis, but it does not contain THC – the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. Instead, it is extracted for its healthy fatty acids and offers some powerful health benefits when used both internally and externally.

Research has found that hemp contains all of the essential amino acids and as well as the fatty ones, both of which are the necessary condition for the existence of human life. Hemp seeds are rich in protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 6, omega 3 and insoluble fiber. They are a good source of tocopherols, or Vitamin E antioxidants. They’re packed with minerals such as potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus, and microelements like strontium, thorium, arsenic and chromium. Therefore, hemp oil can be used to increase immunity, counteract aging processes and improve cardiovascular health. Several studies show that the linoleic acid present in hemp oil could fight psoriasis.

Hemp seed oil also contains a unique protein called globule edestin which is similar to the globulin in human blood plasma. Hemp seed oil possesses powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is also considered to be the most nutritious oil found in nature. Hemp oil is easily digestible, too.

All of this combined together provides many wonderful benefits for health as well as beauty, inside and out.

The health benefits of hemp seed oil

According to scientific research in this area, hemp seed oil has the following health benefits:

1. Hemp seed oil helps maintain a hormonal balance

Hemp is the only edible seed that contains gamma-linolenic acid, which is eventually converted to the protective hormone prostaglandin PGE1 that regulates the hormonal balance and supports menopausal health.

2. Hemp seed oil regenerates and energizes the skin’s protective layer

Its high content of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids makes hemp seed oil an excellent natural emollient and moisturiser. It is especially useful for dry, tired or dehydrated skin and nails. It increases the skin elasticity and water retention capacity in tissues. Pure hemp seed oil can be used to help dry hair and is often included in hair conditioners.

3. Hemp seed oil is great for vegetarians

Getting the right balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can be tricky for vegetarians and vegans. Hemp seed oil has the optimal ratio of these acids.

4. Hemp seed oil helps lower cholesterol

Being the only vegetable oil to contain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (3:1), hemp seed oil can help lower cholesterol levels by accelerating metabolic processes. With a faster metabolism, fats burn at a quicker rate and are not deposited on the artery walls.

5. Hemp seed oil can be good for diabetics

Due to its low carbohydrate and sugar content, hemp oil is a great food additive for diabetics. The nutrients present in it can help moderate blood sugar levels.

6. Hemp seed oil can help psoriasis symptoms

Psoriasis is caused by a deficiency of omega-6 fatty acids in the body. The fatty acids present in hemp oil help improve skin oxygenation and hydration.

7. Hemp seed oil can boost your immunity

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids also improve immunity and regulate intestinal flora, thus building a natural barrier against microbes and increasing the resilience of the body.

8. Hemp seed oil helps block demyelination of the nervous system

Essential fatty acids are necessary for a healthy cell membrane structure. They also limit the demyelination, the destruction of the myelin sheath (a membrane that protects the nerve cells).

9. Hemp seed oil can counter varicose veins

Because it contains high qualities of omega-3s, hemp oil can reduce blood clots and varicose veins.

These statements and claims are not made by us, so make sure you read our health disclaimer.

3. What is cannabis oil?

what is cannabis oil

You must have encountered the term “cannabis oil” every time you searched for a herbal or organic solution for different diseases and conditions. But it is very likely that you still have not used it.

This is the case with many people, simply because online medical blogs, as well as the medical industry, still lack the right awareness towards cannabis. This lack of awareness is part of the reason why certain diseases are still untreatable and lead to fatal results. The better way to approach those conditions is to look for methods of prevention, instead of for new treatments.

Cannabis oil is one natural and organic option for such cases. So, let us tell you more about it in the following paragraphs. And after you become familiar with the ways this oil is extracted and after the myths around the concept are shattered, you could decide for yourself what your opinion on the matter is.

Understanding the term cannabis

Cannabis is a plant often wrongly referred to as “marijuana”. The latter is a more common term for non-scientists. There are different strains within the cannabis plant. The oil is extracted from them and then mixed with other organic oils such as olive oil.

Thus, the cannabis plant could produce different kinds of oils for numerous purposes, all related to the field of medicine. However, the fact that each type of cannabis oil has a different name and different properties has created confusion among users.

A myth connected to the cannabis oils is that it has the same psychoactive effect on the human brain as marijuana.

The four different types of cannabis oil

Simply put, the cannabis plant consists of hemp strains, and the hemp seeds have different ingredients according to the plant’s breed. These ingredients could be used to help several mental and physical conditions.

The main reason for the aforementioned confusion about the cannabis oil and its side-effects is that in the hemp of the cannabis plant there are some ingredients, which could affect the human organism in a negative way.

Here is a list of different types of cannabis oils with their respective benefits and side-effects:

1. CBD oil:

One of the ingredients in the hemp of the cannabis plant is cannabidiol, also known as CBD. The oil extracted from CBD, called CBD oil, is used by people who prefer organic methods over mainstream medicine. This is why CBD oil is becoming a more and more successful natural food supplement in many parts of the world.

2. THC oil:

Tetrahydrocannabinol i.e. THC is another one of the main ingredients found in the hemp of the cannabis plant. However, THC is not as common as CBD because of its psychoactive effect. Although THC is a completely different component of the cannabis plant, the CBD oil is being referred to as dangerous, too, due to a common confusion.

On the other hand, apart from the side effects, the THC oil is also used as solution for some conditions that require the patient to be in a particular mental condition.

3. Hemp oil:

As mentioned above, the hemp is a part of the cannabis plant that might be differentiated from the separate breeds that it has. However, the hemp oil extracted from the hemp of the cannabis plant in order to produce the desired effect and the required amount of CBD and THC.

To sum up, there are a lot of things to consider before buying hemp oil – do not limit yourself to the product’s description.

4. Marijuana oil:

The marijuana oil is also extracted from the cannabis plant. It has some harmful side-effects such as the excessive release of artificial dopamine. This is why marijuana oil, although one and the same as the cannabis oil, is thought to be a harmful organic product that cannot be relied upon to help mental and physical conditions.

Other types of the cannabis oil include Butane Oil, Rick Simpson Oil, and the CO2 oil, all of which have different benefits with the most common one being supporting and blocking of the dangerous diseases in the specified time period with minimal side-effects.

Benefits of the cannabis oil

  • It is suitable for severe neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
  • It is highly beneficial for mild and severe body pains.
  • It is known to be good and help to inhibit skin conditions such as acne and eczema. 
  • It has proved to be a successful mean for weight loss.
  • Anxiety and depression are also curable with cannabis oil.

The cannabis oil has a vast explanation for the term becoming controversial in the last few years. However, with the increased awareness and the number of happy users in its favor, the cannabis oil is becoming equally popular with the right kind of the attention that it deserves.

4. Marijuana, cannabis and hemp - what is the difference?

marijuana cannabis and hemp

Because of the huge development in the cannabis extracts and cannabis isolates market, we are seeing numerous website pages, social media groups and pages that are currently devoted to this market, and with that inevitably comes uncontrolled false information propagated by individuals who have no actual knowledge or are pushing an agenda. Regardless of the reasons, the problem is that false and contradictory information spreads confusion and doubt. These products have huge medical potential but unfortunately, a vehement movement against them is still in motion.

Different opinions

Numerous individuals still don't understand that marijuana and hemp are the same plant with the same genus and species, named either Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica.

“Hemp” consists of genetic strains that are higher in Cannabidiol (CBD) while “marijuana” are the strains that are higher in tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC). CBD and THC are the principal cannabinoids (among several) found in cannabis.

Both terms and the products, based on them, vary in their uses, too. The "hemp" is reserved for the industrial/commercial use of the cannabis stalk and seeds for textiles, foods, papers, body care products, detergents, plastics and building materials, while the term “marijuana” is used for the recreational and medicinal use of products derived from the flower and leaves.

Clearly, these perspectives can prompt contradictions because, under one definition, a material with high CBD would be called hemp and under another worldview the same would be called cannabis. Because of this, a lot of people are confused, and we should stop using the trivial names and adopt the chemotype nomenclature from the essential oil industry. For instance, there are numerous chemotypes of basil fundamental oil most every one of them originating from similar family and species Ocimum basilicum. Basil oil that is high in linalool is called Basil ct. linalool. Basil oil that is high in methyl chavicol is alluded to as Basil ct. methyl chavicol. It will be easier if we simply talk about Cannabis ct. CBD or Cannabis ct. THC. This comes to show that we are talking about the same plant, just different strains that produce different major cannabinoids when extracted.

This brings us to the difference between CBD and THC. While both are very important cannabinoids, they have very different effects on the human body. THC has the additional property of linking to the endocannabinoids in your brain and producing a psychoactive effect. Since CBD does not have this property, it is considered to be more applicable in medicine, at least from a practical usage sense. The amount of CBD to help serious medical conditions such as seizures or chronic pain can be as high as hundreds of milligrams per day. On the other hand, 100 milligrams of pure THC would turn to be dangerous for people for at least 12 hours.

THC is still medically useful but with it one has to tread carefully. There are cases in which the combination of CBD and THC would be of optimal medicinal value.

The old-school producers of “marijuana” (Cannabis ct. THC), for example, who have transformed their once illegal activities into huge cash cow businesses in states like Colorado and the relative newcomers on the market, are now concentrating on extracts of Cannabis ct. CBD. Cases like this lead to misinformation that is spread in the world and this is because of the lack of education or because of the economic interests.

Examples of false statements

The claim ”CBD from hemp is not as high quality as CBD from cannabis” is false on at least two counts. First of all, CBD from hemp is CBD from cannabis, because cannabis is simply the genus of those plants. Secondly, CBD is a molecule with a specific three-dimensional structure. So, there is a not important from which genetic the CBD is produced, it is going to have exactly the same effect on the body, regardless of where it was isolated from.

Other false claims are statements like “CBD extracts from hemp are not as good as CBD extracts from cannabis because hemp does not have the needed terpenes for the entourage effect.” “The entourage effect” refers to the enhanced effectiveness of the cannabinoids offered by the inclusion of the native terpenes of the plant. In general, it is associated with greater effectiveness of using the whole plant extract as opposed to just a single isolated cannabinoid.

In the essential oil and fragrant healing world, we would basically call this the synergistic impact, as in the synergy of all the molecules in the essential oil has a more prominent impact than just the sum of its individual parts. The problem with this claim is, therefore, that what is referred to as the terpene profile of cannabis is simply the essential oil of cannabis.

The essential oil is the volatile organic fraction of the plant obtained by steam or hydrodistillation. It is a secondary metabolite and basically determines the odor of the cannabis plant of interest. But regardless of the smell, the essential oil usually contains three main terpenes - myrcene, alpha-humulene, and beta-caryophyllene. Myrcene is a monoterpene while alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene are sesquiterpenes. The various odors, regardless whether the oil in question is extracted from “hemp” or from “marijuana”, are a result of the variety of ratios of these components. Moreover, there could also be hundreds of different minor terpene and terpenoid components. It is quite likely for you to come across two genetic strains that could have very similar essential oil profiles, smell pretty much the same, and yet one would be higher in CBD and the other higher in THC. This occurs naturally, but could also be achieved through selective breeding.

Lately, many companies are taking about “cannabis terpene isolates” and adding them to cannabis extracts to get the desired entourage effect. These isolates are terpene fractions from the actual CO2 extraction of cannabis. The terpene fractions are very expensive, but buyers beware, more often than not cheap terpene products that come from other botanicals, or even are made synthetically are what is presented on the market. It is fairly easy for a lab like ours to determine the origin of terpenes by GC/MS analysis, as our specialty is in terpene analysis of literally hundreds of botanicals and we can detect adulteration in all of them. The best thing to use in order to achieve the entourage effect would simply be the true cannabis essential oil that is the result of steam distillation of a variety of cannabis strains. Nevertheless, the distillation is usually done with low cannabinoid biomass as the process is somewhat destructive to the plant material and would drastically reduce the extraction yield of the highly-valued cannabinoid containing parts.

Types of cannabinoids

A cannabinoid is a term which is used a lot in the cannabis industry, but did you know that the Mother Nature offers some other types of cannabinoids as well?

These types include:

  • Phytocannabinoids – these are the cannabinoids produced by plants.
  • Endocannabinoids – these cannabinoids are produced in the bodies of humans and animals.
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids – these cannabinoids are produced in laboratories.

The interesting fact is that cannabis is not the only plant that produces healing cannabinoids. Many other superfoods also produce this healing compound which nourishes the endocannabinoid system of our body.

Some plants produce compounds, which has similar properties of cannabinoids but is a little different structurally. These compounds are known as cannabimimetic compounds.

The cannabinoids in those plants are not psychoactive as they don’t contain THC. Instead, these plants contain cannabinoids, whose interaction with the endocannabinoids helps in maintaining the homeostasis. In simpler words, these plants won’t get you high but help in relieving pain and stress. 

5. What are terpenes?

cannabis terpenes

Any natural component whose properties not only benefit its origin but are also useful for the human body is always appreciated by the masses. Especially people who believe in using natural and organic products tend to be healthier than the others who become addictive to harmful medicines for physical and mental health. The main reason for using the natural ingredients is to permanently get rid of the diseases and prolonged ailments that make the person`s immune system weaker. For this purpose, a lot of the awareness is being created by the scientific experts who are the true believers of the herbal elements.

This is why the number of harmful medicines decreases day by day as opposed to the number of natural ones. Plants are the best sources for that, and the cannabis plant is one of them.

The cannabis plant is a common type of marijuana that is popular for its highly effective properties of supporting severe medical illness without producing any side-effects. The hemp of the cannabis plant contains terpenes, that are responsible for producing a specific aroma.

Definition of terpenes

The terpenes are components of the cannabis plant, present in its hemp. The special aroma of the flowers of the cannabis plant is mainly produced by the terpenes. This aroma is a distinguishable element of the plant`s characteristics. Some consider it sweet and fruity, while others think of it as an unpleasant aspect of cannabis products. This smell of the terpenes is not an ordinary one like that of other herbal plants. In fact, it contains some amazing properties which are medically fit for the help of severe physical and mental diseases including cancer and neurological disorders.

The cannabis terpenes

The effect of the cannabis terpenes is somewhat similar to that of the cannabinoids, another element of the cannabis plant. That said, what separates both of them are the individual effects on the human organism. People who have used terpenes in the form of oil to deal with severe diseases claim that they latter feel zero side-effects.

Does it make you high?

does cbd make you high

Before proper scientific experiments and research, most people thought terpenes to have psychoactive and addictive effects on the human brain. However, thanks to the latest research and technology, terpenes have been labeled as a safe organic source of oil which can be commonly used without the need for a prescription.

The effects of terpenes

A thorough research on the differences between cannabidiol, commonly known as CBD, and terpenes, concluded that unlike CBD, terpenes directly link with the natural endocannabinoid present in our bodies only to affect the brain cells that release dopamine i.e. the pleasure cells. This way, if terpenes are taken in the form of oil or a dabber, they react with the brain receptors. This process acts as a remedy for pain, as well as neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, terpenes have a great influence on our body without producing any side effects such as addiction or a high-effect on the brain.

The common immediate effects of terpenes include:

  1. Sleepiness
  2. Relaxation
  3. Anxiety relief
  4. Improves heart rate
  5. Elevates mood

Are there any side-effects of terpenes?

THC is the psychoactive ingredient that is also found in the cannabis plant and most people relate it to the other elements of the plant that gives birth to a misconception. THC makes the person “high” and also becomes a source of addiction. However, terpenes do not contain any psychoactive ingredients that are harmful to the brain. That said, when terpenes are consumed, they immediately have an effect on the parts of the body that need repair. Terpenes are one of the highly-effective natural and organic remedies in today’s time.

How are terpenes consumed?

The most usual way to consume terpenes is hemp oil. However, terpenes are naturally present in some fruits such as mangoes, which allows the humans to consume it on a regular to daily basis to maintain a balance in the mental activities of the brain receptors. Moreover, terpenes are said to release an aroma like that of cloves and black pepper, which aroma is unbearable under normal circumstances. Terpenes could also be taken in the form of oil, capsules, and fruits etc.

The smell of terpenes is basically meant to attract the pollinators and distract the predators, which is why it is also called a “shield” of the natural cannabis plant. The cannabinoids and terpenes present in the cannabis plant are the most effective natural ingredients when it comes to helping cancer and chronic pain.

6. Plants containing cannabinoids

Cacao (botanical name: Theobroma cacao)

Ever wondered why chocolate is being enjoyed by people of all ages around the world? Well, this is because chocolate is made up of cacao, which is rich in chemicals that trigger happiness in the brain. These chemicals include theobromine, anandamide, tryptophan, and phenylethylamine.

Anandamide, an endocannabinoid, is abundantly present in cacao. This endocannabinoid is naturally produced in the brain and regulates the mood, pain perception, memory, and appetite. Other than mood enhancing, cacao has other benefits as well. It improves brain health, speeds up the healing process, and even helps in fighting cancer.

To absorb all the nutrients and health benefits of cacao, it is important to consume it in its raw and organic form. If you are eating milk chocolates and assuming that you will get all the benefits of cacao, they you are wrong. The powdered milk added to cacao in milk chocolates inhibits the absorption of useful nutrients in the body.

Helichrysum (botanical name: Helichrysum umbraculigerum)

Helichrysum is usually used as a mood-stabilizer and an anti-depressant. It is rich in cannabigerol (CBG), which is a phytocannabinoid and is commonly found in the plant of cannabis.

Scientists have found that this plant not only contains CBG, but it is also rich in cannabigerol acid-like compounds.

Helichrysum umbraculigerum is the only plant discovered so far that contains CBG.

In South Africa, people smoke this plant as a means for stress release.

Black Pepper (botanical name: Piper nigrum)

Black pepper is something present in every household. Whether you are using it to season your steak or in another recipe, this ingredient always delivers more than just providing a spicy taste.

An important compound present in black pepper is beta-caryophyllene (BCP). This compound is present in many other plants and is known for its anti-inflammatory properties.

Presence of BCP makes it suitable to ease the pain of osteoporosis and arthritis. Different studies also suggest that it helps cancer and enhances the effectiveness of cancer-fighting drugs.

Kava (botanical name: Piper methysticum)

Kava is known for its anti-anxiety and calming effects. People from the Pacific area used to make medicine from the roots of kava. This plant relieves pain, and has a sedative effect on the body.

These properties of kava are due to the presence of a compound known as kavalactone. A kavalactone binds with the CB1 receptor, which is also a binding site of THC. Scientists believe that this interaction is possibly the reason of anti-anxiety effects of the plant.

Coneflower (botanical name: Echinacea)

Coneflower is a well-known herb that has been used for centuries to help with cold and flu. Various studies show that it also helps in reducing the recuperation time, reducing anxiety, and fighting fatigue, migraines, and arthritis.

Certain species of echinacea contain cannabinoids, which are called N-alkylamides (NAAs). This compound interacts with the CB2 receptor of the immune system. These receptors are responsible for strengthening your immune system, relieving pain, and regulating the inflammatory response.


Just like black pepper, rosemary is also rich in beta-caryophyllene (BCP). It is a terpene which acts just like a cannabinoid. Terpene is responsible for aroma and aroma in plants.

Many studies have revealed that BCP has therapeutic potential. It also has anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects. When BCP is combined with a cannabinoid like CBD, it helps in stomach ulcers and recovery from aid addiction.

Black truffles (botanical name: Tuber melanosporum):

As discussed earlier, there is a difference between cannabinoids produced by plants and such produced by animals. Those that are produced by plants are known as phytocannabinoids, whereas, endocannabinoids are produced by animals and humans. Although they are similar in chemical content, they have some other differences.

Scientists have found that black truffles contain anandamide (AEA). It is also known as the bliss molecule, which is a version of THC produced within the human body.

Anandamide is responsible for regulating mood and pain in the human body by binding to CB1 receptors.

Electric daisy (botanical name: Acmella Oleracea)

Electric Daisy is an Amazon native plant. People from the Amazon region have been using it as a pain-numbing gel for centuries. It is also known as “the toothache plant”. A study by a team from Cambridge University reveals that electric daisy blocks the pain receptors at the nerve end.

The compound responsible for the pain-relief effect is N-isobutylamides. It binds with the CB2 receptor and helps with regulation of pain and inflammation throughout the body. 

Liverwort (botanical name: Radula marginata)

This plant is native to New Zealand. It contains a compound known as perrottetinenic acid, which is like THC in structure. Just like THC, it binds to the CB1 receptors of your immune system.

This plant has been used traditionally to deal with bronchitis, liver, bladder, and gallbladder problems.

These are only a few plants whose cannabinoid compounds have a positive impact on the endocannabinoid system. Scientists are in a process of researching more on this topic to find more natural cannabinoids-like compounds and use them as solutions to different medical conditions.

In conclusion, when it comes to cannabis extracts, it’s critical to be informed before you buy or use a product. The cannabis industry is relatively new and it’s experiencing some of the similar issues of vast scale adulteration and outright fraud that the essential oil and mainstream extracts industry industries experienced decades ago. The cannabis business is disconnected from the more standard enterprises because of the lawful obstructions. People have an enormous lack of scientific expertise and information about the cannabis world, but we hope that we play an important role in helping you get the right information.

7. Cannabis sativa

cannabis sativa

Introduction to Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is a well-known herbaceous plant which originates from near-Equator areas in Asia and South America, such as Mexico, Thailand, Colombia etc. This plant has been used widely in medicine for centuries. Cannabis sativa belongs to the family of Cannabaceae. Cannabis sativa is known as a best source of fibers. It was widely known in ancient times for its usage in medical and textile line. Because they use less water than other crops, the Cannabis sativa plants are being harvested at a record level. Products of this plant are oil, seeds and fiber, which means that it is of best use in fields like nutrition, textile and medicine.

Physical appearance of Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa has a tall stem and green leaves. The leaved are colored in a lighter shade of green and are long and narrow in shape. Its flower is thin, which means that the plant grows in a healthier way and has a lesser risk of a fungus attack on its stem. Its male plants are taller than the female ones.

Uses of Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa`s seeds are most commonly used in the formation of hempseed oil whose main applications include cooking, manufacturing of lamps or making of paints. The seeds of Cannabis sativa are also used as bird feed because they provide the maximum required nutrition to the birds.

Psychoactive chemical compounds that are contained in the flowers of Cannabis sativa, are being used for multiple spiritual purposes as well as in medicine. According to historical sources, leaves and flowers of Cannabis sativa were used in the preparation of skin ointments, for the making of teas and tinctures etc.

In India leaves and seeds of Cannabis sativa are a main ingredient in the preparation of hypnotics, tranquillizers, painkillers or anti-inflammatory agents.

Farming of Cannabis sativa plants

In the period of vegetative growth, Cannabis sativa requires twelve to thirteen hours of light in one day. Period of flowering of Cannabis sativa plants totally depends on the condition of environment.

Flowering cycle cannot happen before the first nine to sixteen weeks. Ph range of the Cannabis sativa in the soil should be 6.3 to 6.8. But if you want to get best nutrition values from Cannabis sativa plant then you have to maintain the pH level in the range 5.2 to 5.8. This is because in this range the soil is hostile for the most types of bacteria and fungi.

Purposes of the cultivation of Cannabis sativa plants

There are three main purposes behind the cultivation of Cannabis sativa plants.

The primary one is to get the fiber from the stems and branches of Cannabis sativa (as Cannabis sativa plant is a rich source of fiber).

The second most common purpose of cultivating the Cannabis sativa plants is to get the seeds from it. Seeds of Cannabis sativa plants have multiple applications, as stated above. They can also be consumed in raw form.

The third purpose of Cannabis sativa plants` cultivation is that they are an important ingredient in recreational medicines. These recreational drugs are obtained as part of the industrial hump production process. In this process the, the concentration of compounds known as psychoactive is very low, in order to make the product useful and not dangerous. Marijuana is also obtained from Cannabis sativa plants.

Medicinal purposes of Cannabis sativa plants

Cannabis sativa has multiple purposes of medicinal and recreational nature. It can be inhaled or taken with food or in tea.

Here you can get more information about the medicinal benefits of using Cannabis sativa:

  • Marijuana (made from Cannabis sativa) can be used to help glaucoma. Glaucoma is a condition which affects the optic disc due to pressure in the eyeball.
  • Cannabis Saliva can help epilepsyEpilepsy is an abnormality that occurs mostly due to the irregular release of electrical pulses in the brain.
  • Cannabis sativa offers a solution for both sensory disturbance and a case of unconsciousness
  • According to the results of recent studies, Cannabis sativa helps with the cases of cancer too.

Side effects of Cannabis sativa

Here is a list of the side effects of usage of Cannabis sativa plants:

  • Feeling “high” or having your state of consciousness altered. This means that Cannabis sativa can distort the level of perception of the person who has consumed the plant.
  • Cannabis sativa could increase appetite.
  • Cannabis sativa could increase the normal level of the pulse rate.
  • A lower level of concentration.

Cannabis sativa plants are common and can easily be found around you. In most cases, they are cultivated among other crops.

8. Cannabis Ruderalis

cannabis ruderalis

As you probably know, cannabis is a plant and its most common strains are indica and sativa. Another strain of cannabis is ruderalis, which is not as common. The botanists have contradictory opinions on cannabis ruderalis as a spate strain or a sub-species. There are a lot of differences between ruderalis and the other two strains of cannabis. The detailed information provided in this article will help you to gain knowledge about ruderalis and will assist you in planting or farming the plant.

The origins of Cannabis Ruderalis

The word “ruderalis” comes from a Latin word “ruderal” which means “wild plant”. Botanists used the term “ruderalis” to define its quality to be cultivated as a wild plant and without human intervention, adapting to the extreme environmental conditions. A ruderal plant is therefore one which grows and is easily cultivated even in areas, inhabited by people or areas which have been affected by natural disturbances, like wildfires or avalanches.

Ruderalis species are thought to be descendent from indica species which in return are descendants of sativa species. So, in scientific circles there are heated discussions whether ruderalis species are the subspecies of cannabis or the distinct species themselves. The ruderalis plant belongs to the northern areas of Asia, Eastern/Central Europe and most importantly Russia.

Characteristics of Cannabis Ruderalis

The cannabis strains are classified according to their properties. The size, growing time, morphology and flowering time are the characteristics that distinguish them.

Size of the ruderalis

Cannabis ruderalis is the shortest type of cannabis strain, which only blooms to about 30 cm to 80 cm in height when it is fully grown. It has a rugged and shaggy pattern that grows only a few branches with wide and fat-bladed leaves which are light green. The buds that grow from ruderalis are small but chunky and have thick sturdy stems. Because they are smallest in size, the ruderalis are also called “dwarf” or “bonsai” cannabis.

The growth time of Cannabis Ruderalis

This characteristic of ruderalis sets it apart from other strains of cannabis. The flowering cycle of ruderalis occurs according to the maturity of ruderalis. The ruderalis can produce flowers in approximately 20 to 30 days after the seeds are planted, regardless of the cycle of the sunlight. It completes its cycle from being a seed to providing seeds in nearly 10 weeks. The seeds of ruderalis can easily detach themselves from the plant and can survive in the ground unless the conditions are favorable for a continued production. The ruderalis plant seeds continue to grow even if the shells are cracked. This is why they are called auto-flowering strains. Because of this trait, they produce flowers as they age, without the need for vegetation. This trait has led to the invention of various genetically modified strains of cannabis.

The cannabinoid concentration

The concentrations of the cannabinoid THC found in ruderalis is relatively lower than other strains. Because of this, ruderalis is not considered suitable for recreational uses. However, it has high concentration of CBD which makes it a better option to cultivate for medicinal utilization. The CBD content, the short growth cycle, and the auto-flowering properties of ruderalis are what makes it very valuable to cannabis breeders.


Auto-flowering is the ability of the plant to grow and reproduce as a result of changes in the plant itself rather than the environment. Usually, plants depend on the changes of season and climate in order to cultivate, but this is not the case with ruderalis. This is the most important trait of ruderalis that distinguish it from other strains. The ruderalis strain growth depends on its maturity – the strain continues to produce flowers until they complete their reproduction cycle.

The ruderalis strains do not need light to grow and do not depend on a light cycle exposure, unlike indica and sativa strains. Breeders have included these autonomous genes into the blooming cycles of other strains. As a result, more effective and prolific strains are produced.

The auto-flowering plants have evolved the process of hybridization and cultivation. This property of ruderalis allows the growers to be careless in cultivation because the plant takes care of itself – does not require much light, and has shorter sow and harvest periods. Thus, it is considered very popular for home cultivation by beginner growers and has created a boom in the cannabis world.

One of the most famous autonomous flowering strains of cannabis is called Amnesia Haze, which is short in size and grows to its full length for about 10 weeks. This version of Amnesia Haze is one of the sativa favorites. Royal Haze Automatic is another popular strain because of the same reasons as Amnesia Haze - short growth time, small size and easy to cultivate properties. Royal Bluematic is a strain with a sweet smell and a taste of blueberries. It is ready to harvest in 8 to 10 weeks. Northern Light Automatic, another ruderalis strain, has a sweet taste and a relaxation effect. This strain has reached big heights of popularity because of its short harvest period and gigantic yields.

The cannabis ruderalis is extensively used by the cannabis growers for its benefits when it comes to quality, as well as the production of other extraordinary strains in terms of aroma, content and cultivating characteristics. This has contributed in developing various strains of cannabis.

9. Harlequin


Harlequin is 75/25 sativa that has a sweet musky mango fragrance. It is famous for the high potency of CBD that makes it a reliable strain to use for therapeutic benefits. It has been reported that the strain can make its users clear-headed and relaxed. The ratio of CBD and THC in Harlequin is 5:2, which means it an ideal strain of cannabis for medicinal purposes. It increases the pain-killing strength of the strain 2 times. It will relax your body without sedation or intoxication. Here is everything you need to know about this strain.

Origins, genetics and history of the Harlequin CBD strain

It is a hybrid strain that comes from a combination of parent plants including:

  1. Thai Sativa
  2. Columbia Gold
  3. Swiss Sativa
  4. Nepali Indica

This is a very carefully bred sativa. It is commonly grown for the medical purposes and some even use it for recreational effects. Once you start using Harlequin you do not get addicted or couch locked. However, it is important to avoid any kind of overexposure to the strain.

Harlequin will help you deal with any kind of overexcitement and avoid any overstimulation in your body. It will help restrain any king of psychomotor irritation. Harlequin is an attractive option for procedures because it contains THC but is also effective against different types of seizures. The reason that Harlequin is a unique hybrid strain is that it is a combination of various strains and has many therapeutic benefits.

Appearance and smell

The plant has a taller stem as compared to other strains. The leaves are green and have green buds, frosty trichomes and orange pistils. The smell is commonly floral and herbal. It has a hint of mango, citrus, oak, sweetness, spiciness and wood.

Therapeutic benefits of Harlequin

As a therapeutic cannabis, Harlequin has THC levels as high as 15 percent. Its CBD levels also go as high as 15%. This makes it the ideal strain for medicinal purposes. Harlequin is a valuable ingredient dealing with a few types of epilepsy, as the epileptic react well to usage of CBD. In youth types of epilepsy, types of weed strains which contain next to zero THC are regularly utilized. The THC is vital in dealing with the resulting from epileptic shocks agonies and dysphoria.

Harlequin is the ideal strain for grown-ups whose specialists prescribe a preliminary of weed to relief their illness and pain. Harlequin weed, for example, can help with musculoskeletal pain. In spite of the fact that THC levels are not high, 15 percent THC is sufficient to give proficient help with discomfort without the symptoms of love seat bolt or tension.

Harlequin is a Sativa and as such, it invigorates the brain. Agony signals from conditions like back pain, sciatica, neck pain, wrist pain, bear pain, foot pain, and different sorts of muscle pain and fits could be hindered by the pain slaughtering capacity of Harlequin restorative cannabis. Harlequin's CBD level reduces the irritation which is the reason for the pain. The CBD diminishes pain in the long term, even after the underlying impacts of the weed have worn off.

Harlequin restorative cannabis may also have the capacity to address manifestations related to ADD and ADHD. The psychomotor disturbance, present in these conditions, can be relieved by the loosening up impacts of cannabidiol. In the meantime, the absence of concentration can be enhanced by the impacts of the Sativa hereditary qualities and THC, which can empower and enhance center.

Harlequin cannabis can likewise be helpful against the attacks of uneasiness and wretchedness. CBD`s ability to decrease irritation can help battle dejection which is caused by autoimmunity and aggravation in the mind, gut, and sensory system. In the meantime, the Sativa impacts can address the side effects of dormancy and the absence of inspiration.

Since its consumption doesn't result in torpidity, couchlock, tension or neurosis, Harlequin is an ideal method to battle queasiness. Harlequin weed can help out the latter without causing brutal reactions.

Harlequin restorative pot can enhance hunger also. Harlequin weed can enhance cravings without the symptoms of other weed strains. It won't cause upsetting or excessively extreme cravings. You will, in any case, have the majority of your capacities while utilizing this weed. Your brain will be clear and dynamic. 

10. Katelyn Faith

katelyn faith

Recently in 2015, a licensed cannabis producer in Minnesota claimed that he has produced the medical marijuana strain with the highest CBD content in the world. Minnesota medical solutions or MinnMed, based in Otsego, announced that their medical cannabis strain is said to have the CBD to THC ratio of 34:1, according to independent lab tests.

The strain was given the name “Katelyn Faith” by MinnMed, after an 8-years-old little girl, Katelyn Faith Pauling, who died of Battens disease. Her parents fought for the access of cannabis for the purpose of dealing with her seizures. Katelyn Faith died just a few months before the state established laws for medical cannabis.

Katelyn Faith strain and other strains

Katelyn Faith strain is the cannabis strain that has the highest content of CBD, earlier this title was given to the Charlotte Web strain, which had a CBD to THC ratio of 20:1.

Properties of Katelyn Faith strain

The Katelyn Faith strain was cultivated by germination research that was conducted in the span of a few months. The CEO of MinnMed Kyle Kingsley said that this is a strain with an extraordinary CBD content, though this statement is still difficult to be verified with certainty because testing is not as transparent and rigorous as it should be.

There is no kind of genetic modification done in the development of Katelyn Faith. The extraction method used for this high-quality CBD means that carbon dioxide molecules should be subjected to high pressure and low temperature, which requires very expensive equipment.

Claims about Katelyn Faith strain

Kingsley said that they named this strain after Katelyn in order to give a tribute to the bravery of the girl, and added that the strain would not have supported the disease of Katelyn Faith but could have helped her in making the quality of her life better.

It was also revealed that Katelyn Faith does not have any intoxicating effects. Kingsley said that there is not enough THC in this plant to produce intoxication, so the strain will provide the maximum benefits to the patients of epilepsy and seizures.

The company is encouraged to provide the strain to all the patients who qualify. The qualifying conditions in Minnesota depend on the diseases. Patients with cancer, seizures, HIV/AIDs, glaucoma, Tourette syndrome, ALS, muscle spasms or illnesses with excruciating pain are eligible to get benefitted from Katelyn Faith strain.

The company added that this strain will help them to create more effective CBD medications, and will drive down the costs for all patients of MinnMed dispensaries. The lowering of the prices is due to the wide availability of the Katelyn Faith strain.

The company was motivated by the number of patients, coming from different parts of the country to Minnesota in order to achieve benefits from this strain. The epileptic patients and other patients who use conventional medications for their diseases like seizures will also have the advantage to get CBD at an affordable price.

Most cannabis experts say that CBD requires a little content of THC to produce the desired results. David Kowalsky of Cannabis Network Radio said that when it comes to the medicinal use of cannabis, we need to make sure to use the plant as a whole. The whole plant medicine is more effective in dealing with diseases, but people are eliminating the THC content which resembles only hemp’s paste. Kingsley of MinnMed also said that the 50-50 split of CBD and THC is common among users, and while many use the combination of both, he added that the patients of Batten disease and epilepsy are more likely to get the most benefits from the Katelyn Faith strain. 

11. ACDC

Cannabis is used for a variety of purposes that includes recreational as well as medical purposes. In order to get the most of this plant, growers look forward to developing strains that provide as many benefits as possible.

Cannabis indica and sativa are the most common and one of the purest cannabis strains. Another category of cannabis strains includes hybrids which possess the qualities of both afore mentioned strains. The majority of the strains that cannabis growers are cultivating nowadays belong to the hybrid species of cannabis.

The cannabis or marijuana plants have much more to offer than just get you high or make you relax. These wonderful plants are also a great way to deal with a number of medical conditions – an example for that is CBD, a compound found in cannabis, which is gradually gaining popularity for its medicinal benefits.

Cannabis breeders and researchers are in process of cultivating cannabis strains that contain more and more CBD content as compared to other cannabinoids found in the strain. This has led to the discovery of many cannabis strains that are rich in CBD, such as Cannatonic, ACDC, Charlotte’s web and Katelyn Faith.

What is ACDC?

In order to understand what ACDC is, you must be familiar with Cannatonic. Cannatonic is one of the initial strains developed for the purpose of dealing with medical conditions. ACDC is a sativa-prominent phenotype of Cannatonic that contains an even higher amount of CBD while having the least possible THC content which means that its medicinal effect is stronger than its psychoactive properties.

Characteristics of ACDC

ACDC received huge recognition because of its medical benefits. The following features set it apart from the other strains:

1. CBD ratio

The biggest reason for the popularity of ACDC is its CBD ratio. To your surprise, ACDC has been proved to have the CBD to THC ratio as 20:1. When ACDC was tested in a laboratory, the sample contained 16-24% of CBD while having only 0.5-1.2% of THC, which makes it a better alternative than Cannatonic in the context of its medical advantages.

If you want to experience a little psychoactive effect, then Cannatonic is a better option for you. Its THC content is 6%. But if you are only interested in the medicinal benefits of the plant, then ACDC is definitely the answer – it does not impair the abilities to think or work.

2. Appearance and aroma of ACDC

ACDC is similar to a mossy-style embryo with yellow-green hues and paired with orange streaks. Because of the very low content of THC, the orange pistils are curled and wrapped throughout the sugar leaves and are not very frosty.

The aroma and odor of ACDC are both very pleasant. It has a sweet taste with a spicy aroma, and the fragrance is woody and tangy. ACDC is preferred by patients, who are allergic to smelly odors like ones with epilepsy.

3. Plant structure

ACDC is of medium height and grows about 4 feet tall. The plant structure consists of skunk strains and large bunches that are grouped together, which is known as “colas”. Growing ACDC requires a lot of time and responsibility. It needs a strong support from which the large bunches can hang. The plant is also not pest or diseases resistant, so excessive observation is vital.

It can be grown indoors or outdoors but typically indoors are preferred because the environment can be controlled, and the plant can be kept away from pesticides and diseases. ACDC could be grown in the wild in warm to mildly cold conditions but very cold weather can increase its flowering time. The growth time of the plant both indoors and outdoors is about 9 to 10 weeks, but if grown indoors it provides more yield.

4. ACDC effects

The ACDC strains are bred from Resin seeds and the strains` indica and sativa ratio is 50:50, which means it possesses the features of both strains. Although it does not produce psychoactive effects, after consuming ACDC one can feel a little more relaxed and stress-free, the users have also reported that after smoking a little ACDC they witnessed increased ability to focus and concentrate.

5. Medical benefits

Due to its high CBD content, ACDC has medical benefits, connected to helping conditions like seizures, muscle spasms, chronic pain or nerve pain. It can also help in managing stress and anxiety and provides an uplift in the mood. Reports and researches have established that ACDC can heal and provide a relieving effect even in serious conditions like cancer, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis or tremors.

6. Side effects of ACDC

Even though it does not alter the thinking abilities of a person due to the low THC content, the only side effect that ACDC has been linked with, is dry mouth or cotton mouth. Dry mouth can easily be taken under control by having a lot of fluids before and after consuming ACDC. A little preparation can be helpful in getting rid of this side effect.

11. Conclusion

We hope that after reading this article you will understand the difference between hemp and marijuana, the importance of terpenes and the very different characteristics of the most popular strains.

In Formula Swiss we primarily use a strain based on Futura 75, which we believe to be superior to the strains described above, and have improved it further. The exact details are proprietary.

This article was written by an independent and third-party author specialising in CBD, hemp and cannabis research. Any opinion, advice or recommendation expressed in the article does not reflect the opinion of Formula Swiss AG or any of our employees. We do not make any claims about any of our products and refer to our disclaimer for more information.

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1 comment

Thank you.! There’s a statement in here about the female plants of hemp baring the seeds . That is incorrect. Just like any plant, the female flowers and the male seeds!

Meral Cooper

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